- Selecting locations for the measurement stations
- Installation of sensors
- Data processing and dissemination
- Quality control and follow-up services
- Case study: Basel, Switzerland
The first step of developing a city climate Monitoring system is the installation of a meteorological sensor network to measure weather variables such as air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, etc. within the given city. meteoblue has developed several tools to assess the best sensor locations within the city and in the surrounding areas. Locations are selected according to scientific criteria, so that all urban local climate zones are covered, and measurements are also conducted in “street canyons” where it is not possible to utilise expensive measuring instruments due to technical restrictions.
Once the sensors are installed, modern IoT Technology (LoRaWAN or NB-IoT) ensures reliable and easy access to the measurements. The meteorological data is stored in our meteoblue database, and can be received real-time via API, web, FTP or a mobile app. Furthermore, the data will be displayed on our website. Afterwards, follow-up services ensure that the meteorological data are quality controlled and corrected for e.g., radiation measurement errors.
In summary, within this service, we help the decision-makers find the most suitable station provider, create a location placement plan based on the optimisation of meteorological and practical criteria, arrange for ordering and installing a measurement network, and for the data transmission from the stations. In addition, we provide detailed information and consultancy regarding other measures necessary for the creation of the network, such as obtaining permissions, finding how to best record the metadata of the stations, and creating a yearly maintenance plan.
The result is an autonomous IoT measurement network which constitutes the foundation for obtaining and utilising reliable information when managing the city's climate change mitigation measures.
An example: Basel, Switzerland
To get an idea of what a measurement network looks like and how we display and use such data, you can explore real-time measurements in Basel, Switzerland, established in 2020 and consisting of more than 180 Metos LoRain sensors. In principle, the sensors were distributed throughout the city centre and in the outskirts and suburbs of Basel in order to cover all relevant local climate zones.
Air temperature, precipitation and relative humidity are measured in 15-minute resolution. Transmission is secured by the IWB’s LoRa network. The map view makes it effortless to see large-scale patterns of temperature or precipitation over the urban area (figure on the left). Hot-spots can be detected visually.
In addition to the raw data, a range of other information is offered. These can also be accessed by clicking on a station on the map (see figure on the right above). Historical measurement data in graphical form, a 5-day forecast based on station data, and statistical evaluations are available on the meteoblue website. The statistical analysis includes e.g., the average air temperature and precipitation sum in daily, weekly, and monthly resolutions.
Heat ranking compares the average air temperatures of all measuring stations and assigns them a number in the ranking. This helps to quickly identify hot-spots in the city.
In addition, meteoblue offers a raw data API, with which one can secure access to the complete time series of all urban climate data since the installation in 2020.
We have established our own city climate network in Basel. Learn more about the climate characterisations of Basel, and have a look at real-time measurements on our website.
Have a look at the measurement network in Zurich and find out where you can find the warmest and coolest spots within the city center.
In cooperation with some of our partners, we established a measuring network in Tallinn. Have a look at live data or learn more about Tallinn's city climate.